Alcohol, Violence and Aggressive Individuals

alcohol and violencePart of the awesomeness of being human is the diversity of our personalities. Put another way, different people act differently. We act differently from each other in all situations: at work, at play, when we’re tired, when we’re cranky, and when we’re drunk!

There are some standard effects of being drunk but many will agree that there are different types of drunks too. Most of these ‘types’ are harmless but most everyone that has been in a bar has encountered the aggressive drunk.

Why are some people more prone to being violent when they drink? Is there something measurable; something predictable? It turns out, it seems there is.

Consideration of Future Consequences

The Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC) attempts to measure a person’s ability to consider future consequences of an action taken now. People that score lower on the CFC test are less able to consider the consequences of their actions. Probably not surprising, aggressive individuals tend to score lower on the CFC Scale.

Alcohol and Consideration of Future Consequences

One of alcohol’s trademark effects is that it reduces people’s ability to make intelligent decisions. People under the influence of alcohol tend to act without thinking. In other words, they tend not to consider the consequences of their actions.

The Study

To test whether certain people were more prone to being aggressive while under the influence of alcohol, Bushman, Giancola, Parott and Roth wanted to test if individuals with low CFC scores were more aggressive while under the influence of alcohol.[1]

A random group of individuals were measured on the CFC scale and then broken into two groups, either drinking a placebo drink or an alcoholic drink. Participants were then subjected to a inter-personally adversarial competitive task. This tasks pits two individuals against each other, with the winner allowed to administer an uncomfortable but otherwise harmless shock to the loser. The nature of the reward allows psychologists to measure a certain level of aggression.

The Results

The results showed that individuals who drank alcohol were more aggressive than those who were not and those with lower CFC scores were more aggressive than those with higher CFC scores. The most aggressive group were individuals with low CFC scores who drank alcohol.


As with many psychology studies, the tested population was limited to young college students. Having said this, the study seems to make it clear that individuals with traits that often lead to a more-aggressive personalities (low CFC scores) in combination with alcohol, tend to lead to more aggressive behavior.

What’s this mean? It’s probably not an illusion that some people are more aggressive than others while drunk. Furthermore, I’m sure you can think of one or two people that fit that bill that also have troubles making wise decisions even while sober.

Pharmaceuticals Compared to Natural Supplements For Depression

Medications compared to natural supplementsDepression is a mental health condition that affects a significant portion of the population. It is estimated that it affects up to 15-20 percent of people some time in their life, and can have devastating effects on social, occupational, physical and educational function.

The mainstay treatments for depression include psychological therapies and pharmaceutical antidepressants. The most popular pharmaceutical antidepressants are classed as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as Prozac®, Zoloft® and Paxil®.

Interest in natural supplements for depression has increased over the past decade. This is because many pharmaceutical antidepressants are associated with several side effects. These include weight gain, nausea, drowsiness and headache.

So how do natural supplements compare to drug-based treatments for depression?

Although many mainstream doctors will argue that there is no research to support the efficacy of natural supplements for depression, this is simply untrue. Below we review some studies where there were head-to-head comparisons between a natural supplement and a pharmaceutical antidepressant.


There have been 3 studies now comparing the spice saffron to an antidepressant for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. In one study, saffron was compared to fluoxetine (Prozac®) in people with depression over an 8-week period. The results revealed that both treatments were equally effective in reducing depressive symptoms [1].

In another study, Saffron was compared to imipramine (Tofranil®) and the same results were found (i.e., equally effective) [2].

In a recent review paper published in Human Psychopharmacology, it was concluded that taking a saffron supplement was more effective than a placebo, and equally effective to antidepressant medications for the treatment of mild-to-moderate severity of depression [3].

S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAMe)

SAMe is a naturally occurring compound in our body that has several functions. In particular, it is involved in a process called methylation. Methylation is important for the production of mood-boosting neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine.

There have been several studies supporting the benefits of SAMe supplements for the treatment of depression and some studies even showing that taking both pharmaceutical antidepressants and SAMe works better than taking antidepressants alone [4].

In a recent study it was shown that SAMe was just as effective as escitalopram (Lexapro®) for the treatment of depression… 36% of people responded on SAMe, compared to 34% on escitalopram (although a similar response rate of 30% occurred in people on a placebo). Depression remitted completely in 28% of people on SAMe and escitalopram, but in only 17% on a placebo [5].

St John’s Wort

St John’s Wort has undergone the most investigation as a natural treatment for depression. Overall it has been concluded that it is significantly better than a placebo for the treatment of adult depression. In comparison to antidepressant medication (SSRIs) is was concluded in a comprehensive review of all studies, that St John’s Wort was as effective but with less side effects [6]. The main problem with St John’s Wort is that it interacts with many medications such as the contraceptive pill, so caution is advised when using this supplement.

Overall the findings indicate that there are several natural options for the treatment of depression (mild-to-moderate severity). More research is required and there are other natural options available, but the findings so far are very promising.


1. Akhondzadeh, B.A. et al. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar 30;31(2):439-42.

2. Akhondzadeh, S. et al. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a pilot double-blind randomized trial [ISRCTN45683816]. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004 Sep 2;4:12

3. Lopresti, A.L. & Drummond, P.D. Hum Psychopharmacol. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. 2014 Nov;29(6):517-27.
4. Levkovitz Y. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine augmentation of serotonin-reuptake inhibitor antidepressants on cognitive symptoms of major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb;136(3):1174-8.

5. Mischoulon D, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) versus escitalopram in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;75(4):370-6.

6. Rahimi R, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum perforatum in major depressive disorder in comparison with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Feb 1;33(1):118-27.

What is Priming?

Volkswagon GolfWhen you’re exploring the idea of buying a new car, let say for example, a Volkswagon Golf, we will consider what happens in your mind.

There may be many reasons for considering buying a Golf; it’s affordable, has good gas mileage, is sporty enough to be fun, and gosh darn, it is cute! Then you might visit a few dealerships and even find a few potential cars that you might consider purchasing. Then you mull over the decision, weigh in on other cars and try to establish if it is a cost you want to take on.

Then, something strange starts happening over the next couple of weeks. You think you have stumbled upon a unique, fun little car. Sure we’d seen a few around here and there but nothing crazy. Then, all of a sudden, seemingly out of nowhere, you start seeing this car everywhere!

Every time you go out you count 3, 5, 10 different people driving a Golf. The car is everywhere. It seems like everyone owns a golf!

Obviously the rest of society isn’t changing their cars at the same time as you. So what’s going on here?

Often referred to as The Baader-Meinhof Phenomena, this tendency to see things consistently only shortly after first recognizing them is the result of a cognitive bias that leads to a distorted perception of reality (there aren’t actually more VW Golfs on the road). Part of what is fueling this is Priming.


This story is nothing unique and I know that you’ve experienced it too. Something that you think is novel, new or obscure suddenly seems very common once you hear about it. What’s happening here is a simple psychological effect that healthy individuals can’t avoid, called priming.

When we are exposed to something enough it sort of rises to the surface of our consciousness. The idea is that by exposing the mind to a stimuli or memory, the pathways to that memory, stimuli, or construct are reinforced.

An analogy: If the park is your memory, then the path from your house to that park is the pathway. The number of people that use that pathway and the frequency with which it’s used determines how defined the path is. Our memories work in much the same way. Since you kept looking up Golfs online, looking at them in person, thinking about them in the car (should I get a Golf?), then, when you’re around them, you’re more likely to see them. Not because there are more of them (obviously), but merely because you have conditioned your mind to be more aware of them.

This is why things like cramming for tests does not work. Although it seems like you can ‘prime yourself’ for a test, the truth is that there simply isn’t enough time dedicated to a single topic to do well on an entire test. You might be able to cram one formula in your head the night before, but not an entire chapter. This is also why we are very prone to hearing our name if someone says it in a group of large people (known as the cocktail party effect).